When we were developing the Sediment Analyzer for CSIRO, Australia, we were constantly hampered by the way the light rays were giving low results. The data from the results were always short of the quantity and accuracy needed to draw the required conclusion. In addition, the dying light from the previous LED was creating collateral noise.
Our Engineers decided to go back to their books and understand how optical analysis worked. In a short period, they absorbed all they needed on Snells’ Law and successfully made changes to the hardware and software to deliver the results.