Sosaley Technologies is developing advanced motor controllers for BLDC, PMDC, Claw Pole Alternator, and PMSM motors. We are also working with LucasTVS to develop controllers for the motors they manufacture including their ISG for two-wheelers.
The Sosaley Motor Control Solutions (SMCS) comes with an inverter to handle both AC and DC motors. It can currently handle 48V and 10 kilowatts. We are working on higher wattages. The SMCS reads data from the motor through all available sensors including hall effect sensors.
The motor control solutions created by Sosaley can handle multiple motor types. It can be be used in a variety of environments that includes two, three, and four wheelers, industrial and domestic motors, air-conditioning systems, etc.
The controller uses a 32-bit micro-controller and is powerful enough to sense, calculate, decide, and control, all in a few milliseconds.
We have designed SMCS to have multiple algorithms for motor control. In Trapezoidal Control, SMCS manages the amplitude of energy that is delivered to the motor. In Field Oriented Control, it understands the flux orientation of the motor, and uses advanced mathematical logic to arrive at the next step. Details on the motor types and the controllers we have developed for each is shown below.
All The Details You Need
Details on the motor types and the controllers we have developed for each is shown below.
Very much like a normal DC Motor, the Permanent Magnet DC motor has permanent magnets located on the stator instead of the stator winding. DC supply is applied across the brushes to run the motor. The commutator is segmented to achieve unidirectional torque. By reversing the polarity of DC supply, the direction of the motor can be changed. As compared to a normal motor, PMDC motors’ speed-torque characteristics are more linear and predictable. Given that, control of these motors can be relatively easier.
PMDCs are used more in applications where lower power ratings are required such as toys, robotics, computer accessories, etc. PMDC motors can also be made for a specific application by changing the armature design.
The PMDC SMCS
Handling relatively smaller loads, the PMDC SMCS can control reversible motors. It constantly monitors the position of the rotor to control it in the most efficient manner. Constantly studying the load on the motor, the PMDC SMCS can start and stop the motor at the exact position needed.
For example, an industrial robot closely resembles an human arm. At the same time, against 7 degrees of freedom of the human arm, a robotic arm has 6 degrees of freedom. Each of these joints are managed by motors that move in pre-defined speed and time. The load is also, to a large extent, predefined.
With PMDC SMCS, a large degree of freedom and unknowns can be introduced. With smart sensors, the actual load and degree of movement needed can be dynamic, and the data fed to PMDC SMCS for precise but variable functioning of the motors. This will give you the flexibility of designing robotic arms with more freedom and more flexibility.
The Claw Pole Alternator is a regular electric motor that uses mechanical power to generate electricity. It is the most common motor type used in most cars and other vehicles today. The CPA is connected to the crankshaft through an alternator pulley.
We mentioned that an ISG is typically mounted between the engine and the drive train. In small vehicles and to save costs, the IS can also be mounted external to the engine. It gets connected to the crankshaft with an alternator pulley. This design is known as belt alternator starter or BAS.
A BAS ISG is a 3-phase AC motor. At low speeds, the ISG adds torque and power to the engine, when there is a spike in power demand. When the vehicle is coasting or decelerating, the ISG becomes a generator and uses the energy from the wheels to charge the battery.
The Claw Pole Alternator SMCS
The Sosaley CPA SMCS can convert kinetic energy from AC to DC voltage. Using 32-bit micro-controllers, the Sosaley CPA SMCS can recover the last ounce of energy from the engine and drive system. In addition, it special ‘torque boost’ mechanism provides instant energy when needed for acceleration.
The BLDC motor is both easier to work with and at the same time, more difficult to manage. Over the last 18 odd months, Sosaley has developed and perfected FOC and the Six-Step commutation logic algorithm that form the backbone of managing a BLDC motor.
FOC, or field-oriented control, is a variable frequency drive control method. In this, the stator currents are shown as two orthogonal components that are visualized with a vector. One of the components is the magnetic flux of the motor, and the other is the torque.
Vector control is superior to scalar control but does involve precise measurements and fairly complex mathematical logic. It does provide the capability to deliver smooth rotation at all speeds, and fast acceleration and deceleration. Plus, by simply changing the direction of the current flow, you can quickly change the motor’s rotational direction.
The Sosaley BLDC SMCS offers a number of advantages:
- Precise measurements of speed and position
- Change of torque and flux in less than 5 milliseconds
- Accurate step response
- Constant switching frequency
- A precise understanding of the motor’s behavior with changing load and environmental conditions
- Calculation of the control algorithm in every PWM cycle
The BLDC SMCS, for example, in an e-rickshaw, acts as the main traction and motor controller. Linked to our BMS system, the BLDC SMCS for e-rickshaws delivers a comprehensive management system that includes GPS, remote management, alerts, and other features.
The PMSM SMCS
In a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM), the field excitation is delivered by permanent magnets. Using AC current, the rotation of the rotor is directly synchronized with the frequency of the supply current. A PMSM can also act as a generator when the field poles are driven ahead of the air-gap flux by external energy.
PMSC motors are, in general, used in high-performance environments where the motors have to be highly efficient. Efficiency is characterized by steady and consisted rotation at all speeds, and quick acceleration and deceleration. Most important is the availability of full torque at zero speed. If you consider a two or four-wheeler, the motor should be able to move the vehicle instantly from a stationary state to the speed expected or required by the driver.
The Sosaley PMSM SMCS has been successfully tested and proven on 2-wheeler traction motors with up to 5kW of energy. For more details, please visit the page on Two-Wheeler ISG.
PMSM Motor Operation
The rotating magnetic field is formed from the sum of the magnetic field vectors of the three phases of the stator windings.
This is just one application area of the motor controller.
In addition to the obvious space, cost, and energy optimization, a motor controller brings a number of advantages. In the automobile industry, here are some of the advantages that can be achieved.
- The starter, which has very little work when the engine is running, becomes a passive device and is eliminated by the motor controller.
- The fragile belt and pulley coupling between alternator and crankshaft gets eliminated.
- A motor controller has a more accurate system of managing generator voltage, particularly during load dumps.
- Slip rings and brushes present in a few motors can also be eliminated.
- In an HEV, a motor controller can augment the power of internal combustion engines (ICE) by providing electric start-stop, and motor assist. In effect, you can have a smaller ICE for the same vehicle saving considerable costs.
- In general, a motor controller can handle a higher voltage and may even be larger than a standard starter. This makes it more efficient resulting in upto 20% reduction in energy consumption.
- An motor controller can simply ’shut off’ during idling. This leads to enormous saving and reduction in environmental pollution.
- Because of its brushless design, the motor controller requires lesser maintenance.
- One can implement damping control. Since it is connected to the drive train, it can lessen oscillations and noise.
- A motor controller can be implemented on existing vehicles without major design or tooling changes.